Biological Treatment Processes: Introduction and Ex Situ Approaches
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Chapter 6 In: NATO Committee on Challenges to Modern Society: NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater. Phase II: Final Report
Groundwater and soil contamination are among the most complex and challenging environmental problems faced by many countries. The problems involve a number of technical issues, including the means of identifying contamination, understanding contaminant behavior in the environment, and mitigating the potential adverse affects to human health and the environment. There are also a number of non-technical issues to be considered, such as the social, economic, and psychological impacts of contamination on individuals and communities, and the need to rejuvenate old urban and industrial areas.
The NATO Committee on the Challenges to Modern Society (NATO/CCMS) has organized a number of pilot studies on the technical aspects of contaminated land. The first pilot study (Box 1.1), which ran from 1980-1984, included an assessment of available remediation methods and a number of other topics. This led to the Phase I Pilot Study (Box 1.2) from 1986-1991 for the purpose of identifying and evaluating innovative, emerging, and alternative technologies and transferring the technical performance and economic information to potential users.